A comparative study of in-flow and micro-patterning biofunctionalization protocols for nanophotonic silicon-based biosensors
A.B. González-Guerrero, M. Alvarez, A. García Castaño, C. Domínguez and L. M. Lechuga
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 393, 2013, 402-410 - DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2012.10.040
Abstract: Reliable immobilization of bioreceptors over any sensor surface is the most crucial step for achieving high performance, selective and sensitive biosensor devices able to analyze human samples without the need of previous processing. With this aim, we have implemented an optimized scheme to covalently biofunctionalize the sensor area of a novel nanophotonic interferometric biosensor. The proposed method is based on the ex-situ silanization of the silicon nitride transducer surface by the use of a carboxyl water soluble silane, the carboxyethylsilanetriol sodium salt (CTES). The use of an organosilane stable in water entails advantages in comparison with usual trialkoxysilanes such as avoiding the generation of organic waste and leading to the assembly of compact monolayers due to the high dielectric constant of water. Additionally, cross-linking is prevented when the conditions (e.g. immersion time, concentration of silane) are optimized. This covalent strategy is followed by the bioreceptor linkage on the sensor area surface using two different approaches: an in-flow patterning and a microcontact printing using a biodeposition system. The performance of the different bioreceptor layers assembled is compared by the real-time and label-free immunosensing of the proteins BSA/mAb BSA, employed as a model molecular pair. Although the results demonstrated that both strategies provide the biosensor with a stable biological interface, the performance of the bioreceptor layer assembled by microcontact printing slightly improves the biosensing capabilities of the photonic biosensor.