Determination of carbaryl in natural water samples by a Surface Plasmon Resonance flow-through immunosensor
E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Abad, A. Montoya, A. Hildebrandt, D. Barceló and L. M. Lechuga
Biosens. Bioelec., 21, 2006, 2129-2136 - DOI: 016/j.bios.2005.10.013
Abstract: The analysis of carbaryl in natural water samples was accomplished using a portable immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. The assay was based on a binding inhibition immunoassay format with the analyte derivative covalently immobilized on the sensor surface. An alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was formed onto the gold-coated sensor surface to allow the reusability of the same sensing surface during 220 regeneration cycles. Reproducibility was evaluated by performing three independent assays in triplicate on 3 different days. The batch-assay variability was also calculated using three different gold-coated sensor surfaces. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation were 8.6 and 15.3%, respectively, whilst a variation of 7.4% in assay sensitivity was obtained by employing different sensor chips. The lowest detection limit, calculated as the concentration providing a 10% decrease of the blank signal, was of 1.38 μg L−1. Matrix effects were also evaluated in different water types, showing I50 values (carbaryl concentrations that produced a 50% decrease of the blank signal) within the range of carbaryl standard curves in distilled water (2.78–3.55 μg L−1). The carbaryl immunoassay performance was validated with respect to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS). The correlation between methods was in good agreement (r2 = 0.998, 0.999 and 0.999) for the three types of natural water samples tested. A complete assay cycle, including regeneration, is accomplished in 20 min. All measurements were carried out with the SPR sensor system (β-SPR) commercialised by the company SENSIA, SL (Spain). The small size and low-time of response of the β-SPR platform would allow its utilization in real contaminated locations.